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2020-04-10 10:21:08 758 中国考研网




  考形近义词区分(e.g. irrigation irritation interrogation)

  考固定搭配  (e.g. a multitude of, 选项会有magnitude,altitude)



  Innovation, the elixir (灵丹妙药) of progress, has always cost people their jobs. In the Industrial Revolution hand weavers were swept aside by the mechanical loom. Over the past 30 years the digital revolution has displaced many of the mid-skill jobs that underpinned 20th-century middle-class life. Typists, ticket agents, bank tellers and many production-line jobs have been dispensed with,just as the weavers were.

  For those who believe that technological progress has made the world a better place, such disruption is a natural part of rising prosperity. Although innovation kills some jobs, it creates new and better ones, as a more productive society becomes richer and its wealthier inhabitants demand more goods and services. A hundred years ago one in three American workers was  employed on a farm. Today less than 2% of them produce far more food. The millions freed from the land were not rendered jobless, but found better-paid work as the economy grew more sophisticated. Today the pool of secretaries has shrunk, but there are ever more computer programmers and web designers.

  Optimism remains the right starting-point, but for workers the dislocating effects of technology may make themselves evident faster than its benefits. Even if new jobs and wonderful products emerge, in the short term income gaps will widen, causing huge social dislocation and perhaps even changing politics. Technology's impact will feel like a tornado (旋风), hitting the rich world first, but eventually sweeping through poorer countries too. No government is prepared for it.


  题目: Yale study shows class bias in hiring based on few seconds of speech


  Candidates at job interviews expect to be evaluated on their experience, conduct, and ideas, but a new study by Yale researchers provides evidence that interviewees are judged based on their social status seconds after they start to speak.

  The study, to be published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, demonstrates that people can accurately assess a stranger’s socioeconomic position — defined by their income, education, and occupation status — based on brief speech patterns and shows that these snap perceptions influence hiring managers in ways that favor job applicants from higher social classes.

  “Our study shows that even during the briefest interactions, a person’s speech patterns shape the way people perceive them, including assessing their competence and fitness for a job,” said Michael Kraus, assistant professor of organizational behavior at the Yale School of Management. “While most hiring managers would deny that a job candidate’s social class matters, in reality, the socioeconomic position of an applicant or their parents is being assessed within the first seconds they speak — a circumstance that limits economic mobility and perpetuates inequality.” The researchers based their findings on five separate studies.


  关于洛克国家学说以及18世纪美国 (只能找到相关材料,未找到原文,欢迎补充。个人觉得有点难。)


  SAD(seasonal affective disorder)(文中介绍了一些症状,原因以及解决方法)


  (题型比较常规,记忆最深的是作者态度题,还有哪一句话best state the article?)

  五、Summary (400 words) (20分)(12段)(Newsweek International)

  Two Americas?

  A massive wave of hispanic immigration is raising questions about identity and integration.

  Byline: Joseph Contreras, With Jennifer Ordonez in Los Angeles and Arian Campo-Flores in Miami

  In his provocative 1996 book "The Clash of Civilizations," Samuel P. Huntington argued that culture would replace ideology as the principal cause of conflict in the 21st century. The Harvard professor foresaw a collision of "Western arrogance, Islamic intolerance and [Chinese] assertiveness" that would dominate global politics in the post-cold-war era. In his new book, "Who Are We? The Challenges to America's National Identity," the conservative Cassandra looks at American society through that same cultural prism and discerns an internal clash of civilizations: the new war is between the country's white majority and its burgeoning Hispanic population.

  "The most serious challenge to America's traditional identity comes from the immense and continuing immigration from Latin America, especially from Mexico," writes Huntington in an excerpt from the forthcoming book published in Foreign Policy magazine. "As their numbers increase, Mexican Americans feel increasingly comfortable with their own culture and often contemptuous of American culture." Never one to shrink from controversy, the 76-year-old academic asks pointedly: "Will the United States remain a country with a single national language and a core Anglo-Protestant culture? By ignoring this question, Americans acquiesce to their eventual transformation into two peoples with two cultures (Anglo and Hispanic) and two languages (English and Spanish)."

  The backlash has not been long in coming--from both sides of the Rio Grande. The Mexican author Carlos Fuentes labeled Huntington a "racist" in the influential Mexico City newspaper Reforma last week and deplored the professor's "stigmatizing of the Spanish language as a practically subversive factor of division." The self-described conservative U.S. columnist David Brooks took issue with Huntington's Kulturkampf scenario in The New York Times. "The mentality that binds us is not well described by the words 'Anglo' or 'Protestant,' wrote Brooks. "There are no significant differences between Mexican-American lifestyles and other American lifestyles."

  At a time when white U.S. politicians are tripping over each other in hot pursuit of the Latino voter, Huntington's Hispanophobia has reopened some unresolved questions about identity and integration. Are Hispanics rejecting the powerful forces of American cultural assimilation, which swallowed up the successive waves of European immigrants who preceded them? Are their swelling ranks and enduring loyalty to Latin American culture and the Spanish language carving out Hispanic-dominated enclaves like Miami where, as Huntington puts it, native Anglos and African-Americans become "outside minorities that [can] often be ignored"? Or are Hispanics simply redefining the meaning of mainstream in an ever more diverse, multicultural United States of America?

  Statistics amply document the rise of the Hispanic American. Native and foreign-born U.S. residents of Latin American ancestry overtook blacks as the largest American minority three years ago and are fast approaching the 40 million mark. Between 8 million and 10 million of these Hispanics are thought to be illegal immigrants, and nearly 70 percent are Mexicans. If current birthrates and rising levels of immigration continue, Hispanics could attain majority status in California by 2018, and may account for fully one quarter of all Americans by the middle of this century.

  It is the roughly 22 million Mexicans in America who most trouble Huntington. He contrasts the success story of Miami's Cuban-Americans--who transformed that city into the economic capital of Latin America--with the Mexican immigrants of the American Southwest, the overwhelming percentage of whom are described as "poor, unskilled and poorly educated." The children of this Mexican underclass, concludes Huntington, "are likely to face similar conditions. …


  六、写作 (800 words)

  题目: My view on genetically modified food