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20考研英语:阅读理解技巧之主旨大意题

2019-10-22 14:10:28 149 中国考研网

  根据考试大纲,阅读理解题型可以分成两大类:主观题和客观题。主观题重在测试考生的主观判断能力,要求考生对文章的主旨大書、作者态度和意图、篇章的逻辑关系等 做出判断;客观题测试考生对原文内容中的具体事实和词汇的理解。总体分类,阅读题型 包括:一、主旨大意题;二、细节题;三、词汇题;四、推断引申题,以及五、作者态度判断 题。针对不同的题型,应采用不同的阅读方法。阅读理解题中,细节题所占比例最大,约 占50%,其他题型各占10%左右。


  一、主旨大意题:


  主旨大意题测试考生对文章主旨和大意的理解,作出对全文的概括与总结。出题人 要求考生找到的可能是文章的中心思想,但中心思想可能概括整篇文章,也可能出现在某 个段落的。其命题方式为:题干中含有main idea, subject或purpose等词,考查内容分别 为:(1)文章的中心思想或段落大意;(2)文章标题;(3)文章目的。


  主旨题的典型提问方式有:


  The best title for the passage is_.


  The topic of this article is_.


  The main idea of the passage is___.


  The passage is mainly about (concerned with) ___.


  The passage mainly (primarily) deals with______.


  The author mainly discusses__.


  The title that best expresses the main idea is_.


  The central idea conveyed in the above passage is_.


  The author's purpose in writing this passage is_.


  The main idea of this selection may be best expressed as_.


  What is the main topic (theme, subject, point) of the passage?


  Which of the following is the best title for this passage?


  What would be the most appropriate title for this passage?


  What does the passage mainly discuss?


  Which title suits this passage best?


  Which sentence best summarizes the article?


  为使读者能直接地了解语篇的主旨大意,作者通常采取主题句的写作手法,即用一或几句话来直接表达主题。主题句在意义上具有概括性,在句法上简洁明了,全篇文章的 各个部分都紧密围绕主题展开。在内容安排上层层铺叙,逐渐深入,直到把某一观点或事物论述得透彻明晰。


  在找寻主题句时,考生应多注意文章或段落的首尾部分。


  例如:


  Oxford and Cambridge differ from the rest of the universities in Great Britain in many important respects, but resemble each other quite closely.


  Oxford was founded in the 12th century. There are at present 35 colleges: three are for women only and the rest take both men and- women. There are at present approximately 9,400 students in residence, of whom over a third are women. The city of Oxford is popular with tourists because of the University's many beautiful medieval buildings.


  Cambridge was founded in the 13th century. There are at present 28 colleges, of which only one is for men students only and two for women only. The remaining 25 take both men and women. There are at present over 9, 000 students in residence, of whom a third are women. Cambridge University has made the city of Cambridge an internationally famous tourist centre.


  The passage is mainly about the_.


  A.history of two famous universities in Britain


  B.comparison between Oxford and Cambridge


  C.number of students at Oxford and Cambridge


  D.introduction of colleges at Oxford and Cambridge


  该段一开始就说明了 主题 Oxford and Cambridge differ from the rest of the universities in Great Britain in many important respects, but resemble each other quite closely,接下来的句子都是为了进行论证或发展这一主题句。


  总之,文章的主题句通常出现在文章的第一段首句、第一段末句或全文末句。


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